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何新:希腊伪史论的关键六点(英文及中文稿)  

2014-03-13 17:26:21|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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何新:希腊伪史论的关键六点(英文及中文稿)


何新:希腊伪史论的关键六点(英文稿及中文稿) - 何新博客管理员 - 何新网易博客
 

 

【中文稿】

何新:希腊伪史论的关键六点

【希腊伪史论的关键六点】

 希腊文明真伪问题的关键,在于以下六个方面。这是要害之所在:

  一、历史中从不存在什么“希腊国”、统一的“希腊文化”

  其实,我立论批判希腊伪文化和伪史的关键论点是基于以下4点:

  1、有人以为希腊是一个国家。实际上,希腊在19世纪发生摆脱奥斯曼土耳其统治的希腊独立运动之前,历史上的希腊半岛上从来没有形成一个统一、独立、自主、名字叫“希腊”的主权国家,也从来不存在一个以雅典为中心的”辉煌“的古希腊文化!

  2、由于古代的希腊从来没有形成统一的国家,所以希腊也从来没有形成独立的主权,没有王权、王朝和希腊国王。

  在历史的多数时期。希腊半岛的部分或全体,曾经隶属于波斯、马其顿帝国、罗马帝国和东罗马帝国,后来隶属于奥斯曼土耳其帝国。但是,历史上的希腊半岛及周边区域,从来没有作为一个什么“大希腊殖民帝国”而存在过。

  [请注意:这里强调的并不是一个叫”希腊“或别的名称的国家和文化是否存在,而是作为一个主体国家和文化的”希腊“——在全部历史中根本不存在。所谓的希腊文化,是西方近代史学及考古所虚构造型出来的一个民主乌托邦。]

  3、在亚历山大征服希腊半岛以前,希腊半岛仅仅存在一些经济和文化极其落后的小城邦,如雅典、斯巴达。雅典城邦的全盛时期也只有2—10万左右的总人口。实际上这一数字也是高估的。

  [古典时代雅典城邦公民人口总数在2—3万左右,加上周边农村及奴隶,总人口在10万人左右。(此据希腊史学者王大庆及解光云的推算)]

  希腊是个多山国,地理条件恶劣,至今极为贫困,各城邦之间交通不便利,互相联系很少。由于历史中没有统一的希腊王国或帝国,也没有存在过什么统一的希腊军队。这个半岛上任何小城邦的统治者,其治权从来没有超越小城邦的狭窄区域。

  4、因此,历来被传说和膜拜的所谓“伟大的史前希腊史”,只是文艺复兴以后的西方人根据来历不明的“荷马史诗”,利用涵义模糊不清的“希腊”这个概念,所虚构、编造出来的一系列传说和神话故事。在历史中从来没有真实存在过。

  其实,任何人要驳倒我的希腊伪史论,只须首先反驳以上4点,从而证明在1832年以前世界上确实曾经有一个希腊王国或者希腊王朝,或者希腊殖民帝国,或者“希腊民主联邦国”存在于希腊半岛上或者其他地方(证明作为一种政治制度和文化载体,希腊国家与希腊民族曾经在何年何地存在过),那么我的希腊伪史论自然就不能成立,人们就可以把所有的伟大和光荣都归于这个政治及文化的实体。

  但是,如果历史上根本找不到这样一个希腊国作为希腊文明的历史实体和文明主体而存在——那么我们就不知道统一的希腊民族和文化究竟寄存在哪里。就不得不承认,迄今中外希腊粉丝所有关于“古希腊历史文明”如何辉煌伟大的神话,都是在扯淡!

  二、荷马是亚洲人,荷马史诗不是希腊的史诗

  荷马史诗出身可疑,来历不明。

  荷马究竟是哪里人,是哪国人?如果世界上根本没有希腊国存在,那么荷马也就当然不是希腊人。难道荷马是没有国籍的世界公民?

  荷马是希腊半岛本土的欧洲人吗?不是。其实,一向被称为希腊伟大诗人的荷马,并不是欧洲的希腊人而是亚洲人——小亚细亚人。

  有意思的问题是,如果当时世界上根本没有希腊国的存在,那又凭什么说荷马的作品都是关于希腊的神话和史诗呢???

  实际上,荷马到底是谁,什么时代的人,甚至是男人还是女人,一个人还是一群人?——这些问题至今西方学界也没有弄清楚,没有定论!可是,现今全部希腊史前史,却都是根据说不清、也道不白的荷马史诗和神话编造、杜撰出来的!

  [号称曾经藏有荷马此书唯一原本的亚历山大图书馆,早在公元初年据说就被战乱毁灭了,据说片纸无存。而英国19世纪桑兹的《西方古典学术史》,被高某大肆吹捧。你吹个屁啊,那本书就是西人自己给伪造的西方历史堵窟窿的书,书中鬼话连篇,谎话连篇!譬如亚历山大图书馆,桑兹说没有被烧——这其实就是在抽英国希腊罗马祖师爷吉本的大嘴巴!

  其实亚历山大图书馆,就连它到底存在不存在,可能不可能存在——在西方历史学中还有争议,至今也还是个问题。西方古代无信史!文艺复兴后在西方突然冒出来的那些希腊罗马著作——多数至今无法定论其文本真伪。]

  高某文中详细地列举了某些英国人关于荷马史诗的说法,宣称在埃及纸草残片中得到了一系列发现。本人不是荷马版本学家,目前暂且无意讨论这些所谓的埃及纸草版荷马的真伪问题。我只想说,这些纸草帮助不了希腊伪史制造者什么忙。

  荷马史诗的主要内容是关于“阿凯亚人”攻打伊利昂城的传说。但是,这一战争并不是发生在希腊半岛上,也不是什么“希腊人”的战争。既然希腊国本身是一个子虚乌有之邦,那么又哪里来的希腊人对外国人的战争呢?荷马说的“阿凯亚人”,其实是亚洲人(爱奥尼亚——小亚细亚)人,而不是希腊半岛或者雅典希腊的欧洲人。

  从过去一百年间的西方考古学看,都认为荷马史诗中描写的战争发生在地中海东岸的亚洲、小亚细亚。(如19世纪末,德国学者施里曼在小亚细亚西岸的希萨里克发掘一座古城的遗址,认为这个古城就是古代特洛伊人的都城伊利昂。)

  总之荷马史诗与所谓的希腊半岛历史——特别是雅典希腊历史,并无关系。说荷马诗篇是关于希腊人的史诗,叫做驴唇不对马嘴。

  三、克里特、迈锡尼文明本不属于希腊

  有人说,希腊考古有克里特和迈锡尼文化的发现。请问公元前3000年——1000年当时世界上有“希腊”这个国家存在吗?

  如果没有,凭什么把这两个独立自生的岛屿古文化,归属于当时根本不存在的古希腊呢?有人说是根据荷马的神话故事——这不是放屁吗?!如果荷马神话可以用来证史,那么西游记、封神榜也都可以进中国历史作为教科书了!

[按:克里特、麦锡尼文化不属于希腊,犹如日本新石器时期的绳纹文化不属于中国,虽然中国东南沿海及台湾也有绳纹文化。]

  所谓的克里特和麦锡尼考古,虽然出土物也许未必全是假的——但被西方学者揭露质疑的假古董确实也有不少。(例如那些画图精美的陶罐就大有可疑——因为当时全人类都还没有那种彩陶烧制和绘画的技术。)至于那个牛头人身的妖怪克里特国王米诺斯,则肯定100%是假货。那些什么泥版线性文字A/B——居然都是一个个那么类似古汉字的方块文字,我看也不像真货——我大胆怀疑小心求证——猜想会不会是洋人仿照中国石器时代的陶文方块字而伪造的呢?泥版那东西,很容易伪造啊!

  四、柏拉图、亚里士多德的著作文本可疑

  至于柏拉图、亚里士多德的著作,的确就是全部流传不明,也没有保存下来的任何原始版本!(别说老何不懂古希腊文,所以没资格讨论这个——若我没资格,那世上也就没人有资格!因为那些所谓的希腊著作,几乎没有一本是古希腊文的原著,不是来自希伯来文就是来自阿拉伯文——从来就没有人见过存在什么古希腊原始文本)——谁若说有,那就请告诉大家,究竟中国的哪本希腊著作,是从古希腊文直接翻译的?!

  至于那些浩如烟海的所谓“亚里士多德著作”,很可能是来自古代小亚细亚地区许多不同时期、不同作者之著作的冒名顶替的堆砌,所以连中文《亚氏全集》的译者苗先生对此都表示心存疑惑。

  五、所谓的希腊哲学科学巨匠多数非欧洲希腊人,而是亚洲人

  最讽刺的是,无数国人崇拜无比的那些所谓希腊哲人——除了一个柏拉图是正牌雅典人,大多数都不是希腊人而是亚洲——小亚细亚人,包括大名鼎鼎的赫拉克利特、毕达哥拉斯、欧几里得、阿基米德等等。

  这些都是鉄一般的事实——洋奴、假洋鬼子你们否定得了吗?!

  最讽刺的是,无数国人崇拜无比的那些所谓希腊哲人——除了一个柏拉图是正牌雅典人,大多数都不是希腊人而是亚洲——小亚细亚人,包括大名鼎鼎的泰阿尼徳、赫拉克利特、毕达哥拉斯、欧几里得、阿基米德等等。

  这些都是鉄一般的事实——洋奴、假洋鬼子你们否定得了吗?!

  西方学术制造希腊伪史的重要手段之一,就是窃取小亚细亚(即爱奥尼亚)地区发达的古文明、古哲学,将其伪装、冒充为希腊本岛(雅典希腊)的欧洲文明。

  六、古希腊罗马文明与蛮族日耳曼以及盎格鲁·撒克逊文明没有承接关系

  还有这一条打洋奴、洋鬼子的脸最狠!就是:希腊文明根本不是西方白种人的文化祖宗!从神圣罗马帝国时代起,西方白种人一直冒认希腊、罗马为自己的祖宗。而伏尔泰对于伪帝国传统的“神圣罗马帝国”说过一句意味深长的名言——“这个帝国既不神圣,也非罗马,更不是帝国!”

  就算希腊的历史完全是真,没有什么伪史,也无关紧要。——因为希腊人和后来的罗马人,所谓希腊罗马文明——根本不是日耳曼人、盎格鲁·撒克逊人(那些来自北欧的白人)以及西方文明的祖宗!两者不是同一个人种,也完全没有文化方面一脉相承的传承关系。

  相反,日耳曼人包括盎格鲁·撒克逊人一直是希腊、罗马人的死敌。这些白种人被希腊罗马人称作讲鸟语的蛮族——野蛮人,是希腊罗马不共戴天的仇人。

  那些白种洋人本身没有可以骄傲的古代历史、起源太野蛮,自己不好意思,所以就造了个希腊罗马的假历史作为自己的祖宗拜。所谓的“文艺复兴”运动,其实就是白种人(拉丁人、日耳曼人、盎格鲁·撒克逊人)系统伪造西方文明的一场运动。

  我之所以敢冒天下之大不韪,向堆积如山的西方近代出现的希腊学文献和考古挑战,就是基于以上极其简明的六点。

  揭露希腊罗马的伪史,就是在西方的文明神话上面捅出了一个大窟窿——相信中国人以后必有来者,会继续循此思路而继续思考、认真研究。那时他们就会发现,西方目前编写的整个世界历史,其实都是根据西方近代的价值观念伪造的——完全不是信史。我所揭露的希腊及罗马的伪史,不过只是冰山之一角而已!

  中国文明在晚近的三百年间由于成为东胡满清的殖民地而衰败不已,但是汉唐宋明以来的大中华古代文明是极其辉煌的,中国人不需要伪造自己的历史和文明。中国人应当重新塑造自己的文化自信、自尊和自豪!

【B.英文稿】

He Xin: Six Crucial Points of Criticism on Pseudo Greek History 


【Six Crucial Points of Criticism on Pseudo Greek History】

The problem whether the Greek civilization is fact or fiction lies in the following six crucial aspects. And these are the vital points which all cunning western scholars and their followers in China are always trying elaborately to avoid and have never dared to directly respond to:

I. “Greece” or “Greek culture” never existed in the history

As a matter of fact, I base my crucial arguments of criticism on the pseudo Greek culture and history on the following four points:

(1.) Some people think that Greece is a country. In fact, before the Greek independence campaign against the rule of Ottoman Turks in the 19th century, neither had there been a unified, independent and autonomous country with sovereignty named “Greece” on the Greek peninsula throughout the history, nor had there been a brilliant “ancient Greek culture” with Athens as its center. 

(2. )As ancient Greece had never formed a unified country, it did not have independent sovereignty, kingship, dynasty or the king of Greece. 

During most of the time in the history, the Greek peninsula was subordinate in whole or in part to Persia, Macedonian Empire, Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, and later the Ottoman Empire. However, on the Greek peninsula and its surrounding areas in history, there has never been a “Great Greek Colonial Empire”.

[Please note: here it is not to emphasize whether a country or culture called “Greece” or something else exists, but to stress that there is no “Greece” as a sovereign country and culture throughout the history. The so-called Greek culture is a democratic Utopia fabricated in the modern western history and archaeology.]

 (3) Before conquered by Alexander, there were only some small city-states with backward economy and culture on the Greek peninsula, such as Athens and Sparta. In the most prosperous period of Athens, there were only 20, 000 to 100, 000 citizens. As a matter of fact, this figure is overrated. 

[There were around 20, 000 to 30, 000 citizens in Athens in the ancient times. Plus people in the surrounding villages and slaves, the gross population was about 100, 000. (This is based on the estimation made by Wang Daqing and Xie Guangyun, scholars specializing in Greek history.)

Greece is a mountainous country with harsh geographical conditions, and it has not overcome poverty so far. Without a convenient way of transportation, its city-states rarely contacted with one another. As in the history there was neither a unified Kingdom of Greece/Greek Empire nor a unified Greek army, the governing power of the rulers of the small city-states on this peninsula was always confined in their own limited territories. 

(4.) Therefore, “the great prehistoric Greek history” which has always been circulating and admired was just a series of legends and fairy stories concocted and fabricated by the westerners after the Renaissance, by using the ambiguous concept of “Greece” and on the basis of the “Homer’s Epic” without a definite origin. As a matter of fact, it has never existed in history.

In fact, whoever wants to refute my criticism on the pseudo Greek history, he must first demolish the four points mentioned above to prove the existence of the Kingdom of Greece, Greek Dynasty, Greek Colonial Empire or “Greek Democratic and Federal State” before 1832 in the world, and to prove when and where the country Greece or the Greek nation has ever existed as a political system and a culture carrier. In this case, my criticism on pseudo Greek history will prove false, and all the greatness and glory can be attributed to this political and cultural entity.

However, if no such country called Greece can be found in history as an entity and principal part of Greek civilization, we will have no idea where on earth the unified Greek nation and culture exist. And we have to admit that all the fairy tales on the great and glorious “ancient Greek history and civilization” worshipped by fans of Greece at home and abroad are all nonsense.

II. Homer was an Asian and Homeric Hymns is not an epic of Greece

The source or origin of Homeric Hymns is suspicious and unclear.

Where on earth did Homer come from? What was his nationality? If there is no such country of Greece in the world, Homer would surely not be a Greek. Was Homer a world citizen without nationality?

Or was he a native European of Greek peninsula? The answer is no. Instead, Homer who has always been called a great Greek poet was not a Greek in Europe but an Asian—who was from Asia Minor. 

It is interesting that, if there was no such country of Greece in the world at that time, how can Homer’s works be regarded as legends and epics about Greece?

Actually, who was Homer? When was Homer born? Is Homer a man or a woman? Is Homer a person or a group of people? These questions have not been made clear in the Western academic circles. However, all the available Greek prehistory was fabricated on the basis of the unidentified and inexplicable Homer Hymns and fairy tales!

[It is said that the Library of Alexandria, which was famous for keeping the only original copy of this work of Homer, was destroyed in chaos of war in the earlier years of the Christian era, without any piece of paper left. However, A Short History of Classical Scholarship written by the British writer Sandys in the 19th century is highly touted by Gao. Stop talking nonsense! That book is for closing the loopholes of the fabricated Western history, which is a pack of lies. For example, Sandys said that the Library of Alexandria survived the fire hazard, which was like a big blow to the British historian Gibbon, the granddaddy of research on the history of Greece and Rome.

Actually, it has always been controversial in the study of western history whether the Library of Alexandria truly existed on earth and whether it is possible for the library to have existed. This is still a problem now. There is no credible history of the west in the ancient times! There suddenly popped up some works about Greece and Rome in the west after the Renaissance. The authenticity of most of them has still not been verified.]

Gao has listed in detail the opinions of some British people on Homeric Hymns, declaring to have got a series of discoveries in the fragments of Egyptian papyrus. I am not a scholar of bibliology of Homeric Hymns, so it’s not my intention now to discuss the authenticity of the so-called Egyptian papyrus version of Homeric Hymns. I just want to say the papyrus will not be of any help to the fabricators of the pseudo Greek history. 

Homeric Hymns is mainly about the legend that Achaeans attacked the city of Ilium. However, neither did this war take place on Greek peninsula nor could it be called the “Greek” war. Since the country of Greece did not really exist, how could there be a war of the Greek against foreign invaders? In fact, the Achaeans mentioned in Homeric Hymns were Asians (Ionian—Asia Minor) rather than Europeans on the Greek peninsula or in Athens of Greece.

In Western archaeology during the past century, it has been recognized that the war described in Homeric Hymns took place in Asia and Asia Minor on the east coast of Mediterranean Sea. (For example, in the end of the 19th century, a German scholar Schliemann discovered the relics of an ancient city in Hissarlik on the western coast of Asia Minor, and he believed that this ancient city was the capital city Ilion of the ancient Trojans.)

To sum up, Homeric Hymns has nothing to do with the so-called history of the Greek peninsula, particularly, the history of Athens and Greece. So, it is irrelevant to identify Homeric Hymns as the epics of the Greeks.

III. Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations did not belong to Greece

Some people argue that there were discoveries about Minoan and Mycenaean cultures in Greek archaeology. I’d like to ask them whether there was a country called “Greece” in the world between 3000 BC and 1000 BC.

If the answer is no, why do people include the two independent island cultures into ancient Greece which didn’t exist at all? Someone said it was based on the fairy tales of Homer. This is nonsense at all. If Homer’s fairy tales could serve as a testimony to history, the Journey to the West and the Legend of Deification could be included in the textbooks of Chinese history.

As for the so-called Minoan and Messinia archaeology, though the unearthed are not all fakes, there are quite a lot of fake antiques disclosed and doubted by western scholars. (For example, the clay pots with exquisite paintings are rather doubtful, because all the human beings had not been able to invent the technology of colored pottery firing and painting then.) And the ox-headed monster Minos, the king of Crete, is absolutely a fake. And it is surprising that those linear letters A/B on clay tablets are similar to the square characters of Classical Chinese. In my opinion, it seems that they are not genuine. I question it boldly and verify it carefully to assume whether they were forged by foreigners by imitating the clay square characters of China in the Stone Age. Things like the clay tablets were easy to forge.

IV. Plato’s and Aristotle’s works are doubtful

As for Plato’s and Aristotle’s works, it is true that they have all been passed down from unknown sources, without any original versions left. (Hope the discussion will not be directed to the argument that I do not know ancient Greek so I am not qualified to discuss it. If I am not, there will be no one eligible on the earth! Those so-called Greek works are hardly the original versions in ancient Greek, but are either in Hebrew or in Arabic. No one has ever seen the original version in ancient Greek). If someone argues there are such versions, please tell us which Chinese version of these Greek works is translated directly from ancient Greek? 

As for those innumerable works of Aristotle, they are most probably made up of works of different authors in ancient Asia Minor in different periods, and even Mr. Miao who translated the complete works of Aristotle into Chinese is also suspicious of it. 

V. Most of the so-called great Greek philosophers and scientists were not Greeks in Europe but Asians.

The most ironic thing is that the so-called great Greek philosophers, except Plato, worshipped by numerous Chinese fans were not native Athenians or Greeks, but were Asians—from Asia Minor, including those quite famous such as Heraclitus, Pythagoras, Euclid, Archimedes, etc.

All these are iron-clad facts. How can they be denied?

One of the important ways used in the western academic circles to fabricate pseudo Greek history is to steal the developed ancient civilization and philosophy of Asia Minor (i.e. Ionia), and then disguise them and pass them off as European civilization of Greece (Athenian Greece).

VI. There’s no coherence between ancient Greek and Roman civilization and the barbaric Germanic and Anglo-Saxon civilization.

In addition, it will give worshippers of the West in China the greatest blow that the Greek civilization is not the source of the western white culture. Since the Holy Roman Empire times, the western white people have adopted Greece and Rome as their ancestors. However, just as one of Voltaire’s  for pseudo imperial tradition "the holy Roman empire," said a meaningful words -——" This Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor empire!"

Even if the history of Greece is totally true and there is no pseudo history, it will make no difference at all. It is because the Greeks and later Romans are by no means the ancestors of Germanic people, Anglo-Saxons (those people from Northern Europe), and nor is the so-called Greek and Roman civilization the source of western civilization. Neither are these people the same race, nor are their cultures coherent by inheritance. 

On the contrary, the Germanic people, including Anglo-Saxons, were always the sworn enemies of the Greeks and Romans. These white people were called by Greeks and Romans barbaric ethnic groups speaking pagan languages. These barbarians were regarded as enemies by Greeks and Romans.

These white people originally did not have ancient history which they could take pride in. Because they felt embarrassed at their barbaric origin, they fabricated pseudo history of Greece and Rome which they worshipped as their ancestors. And the so-called Renaissance movement was actually a campaign that the white race (Latin, Germanic people and Anglo-Saxons) systematically forged the western civilization.

It is just on the basis of the six aspects which are described rather concisely above that I risk to challenge a sea of Greek literature and archaeological discoveries in the west in modern times. 

To uncover the pseudo history of Greece and Rome is to smash a large hole in the civilization myths of the West. I believe there must be Chinese successors following this thought to keep thinking and make serious research. And then they will find the whole world history written by westerners is actually fabricated according to the western values in recent times—and by no means credible. And the pseudo history that I have disclosed is just the tip of the iceberg.

The Chinese civilization was corrupted seriously because of the ruling of Donghu tribes and Qing Dynasty in the past nearly 300 years before the establishment of PRC, but the ancient civilization of Great China was rather brilliant in Han, Tang, Song and Ming Dynasties, so we Chinese do not have to fabricate our history and civilization. We Chinese should build up our cultural confidence and self-esteem and feel proud of our own culture. 

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